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There are a wide variety of techniques used in electronics.

Printed circuit board design/fabrication

Printed Circuit Boards

Circuit construction (Prototyping - Other than custom PCB)

"Construction Ideas" has nice photographs of the above circuit construction techniques. ["Effects Building Techniques" by R.G. Keen 1999 reviews, compares, and contrasts these techniques for circuit construction -- also a few more.

Soldering techniques

(Have you seen this CNC solder paste/pick n place ?) Hackaday has lots of other similar articles: search hackaday for "solder paste"

(Optional: ) After all the parts are completely soldered down, some people like to spray the board with some kind of conformal coating, or completely seal in the board with some kind of potting compound. See "Electronics and Robotics: What's the best way to protect a board from corrosion in a hot/moist environment?".

Hardware tools

A directory of hardware tools that you may find useful.

software tools

Software design tools

A directory of software tools that you may find useful.

PC-Microcontroller Communications

Discussion of the various methods to connect a microcontroller or embedded system to a PC...

Embedded System Programming and Testing

To add to the confusion programming in embedded system can mean a person writing a program or a device called a programmer "burning" a program into a chip. This section is for the "burning" meaning of programming.

  • Many systems use JTAG for programming and testing. (Such as Atmel AVR embedded systems]).
  • Other systems use some other kind of in-circuit programming.
  • Some people use bootloaders to make re-programming a little quicker.

-- not sure that this next one is not misplaced ? -- We're talking about "programming and testing" ? What else do you use to test op-amp circuits?

Humans writing a program almost always do it in a language. Here is a section that discusses some of these languages: Programming Languages

driving motors

See Stepper Motor Tester and motor driver.


  • The Earth Signal should short to whole metal Case
  • Digital/Analog GND should separate to this Earth Signal, and should connect a Y-cap. to filter the noise between them.
  • Attention: do not place near between Earth Signal and Digital/Analog GND, otherwise some spark come out, and affect your whole system.
  • See enclosures.

Misc Tips Tricks

Misc Tips Tricks

Further Reading

Environmental Issues

see better for the environment.